Allah Ta’ala has related imān (which is the basis of Islam) to experimentation and the intellect. That is, the building of Islam has been erected upon these two principles. All other worships, blessings, and forms of obedience are the branches and twigs of this tree of imān. Allah Ta’ala in many places of Holy Qur’aan, scolds and disgraces disbelievers because they didn't use their minds; they didn't think by observing the earth, the skies and themselves, and thus attain imān.


The book Marifatnama writes, "Sayyid Sharif Jurjani, a great Islamic scholar, says that the knowledge of astronomy helps a wise and reasonable person to realize the existence of Allah Ta’ala. Imam Ghazali says that he who does not know astronomy and anatomy cannot realize Allah's existence."


Today, an intelligent person who can realize Allah's power well through the branches of sciences, such as physics, chemistry, physiology, and astronomy, can also realize easily as a scientific fact that Hadrat Adam (alaihis salaam) and all men and animals will be brought out of the soil on the Day of Resurrection. A century ago, Muslims believed this without any understanding. But today, we see it as a simple scientific fact and believe it without needing further proof.


They spread far into Asia, Africa, Cyprus, Istanbul and, in brief, everywhere. In order to introduce Allah's religion to His human creatures, they fought and they sacrificed their lives. These vast lands are full of those blessed martyrs. They sent their sons to the faculties of Baghdad University, which was at that time the greatest university in the word - and it can be seen in its existing artefacts today that they had experimented and discovered many new things in physics, chemistry, astronomy, geography, and mathematics - in order that they might learn knowledge.


Europeans have derived most of their scientific knowledge and its basis from Islamic books. While Europeans assumed that the earth was flat like a tray surrounded by a wall, Muslims had known that the earth was spherical and was rotating. This fact is written in detail in the books Sharh-e-Mawaqif and Marifatnama. They measured the length of the meridian in the open plain of Sinjar between Musul and Diyār-e-Bakr, finding the result as it is found today. Nur-ud-Din Batruji, who passed away in 581 [1185 A.D.], was a professor of astronomy at the Islamic University of Andalusia. He wrote today's astronomy in his book Al-Hayāt.


When Galileo, Copernicus and Newton said that the earth rotated after learning this fact from Islamic books, they were deemed guilty for their words. Galileo was judged and imprisoned by priests. Until the Tanzimat [reforms of Abdul Majid in 1839], scientific lessons had been taught in madrasas. Enlightened men of religion had been educated. They had been leading the world. When scientific lessons were abrogated, explorations and inventions stopped. The West began to gain on the East.


Today, we will learn our religion from the books of those great savants. Religious knowledge can be learned from the Ahl as-sunnah savants or from their books. It cannot be acquired through kashf or inspiration. He who reads their books will both learn knowledge, and his heart will be purified.


Wrap-up

Learning experimental knowledge well, that is, the applied sciences, which is the second division of Islamic knowledge, helps and facilitates to understand easily and clearly those branches of religious knowledge that are deep and delicate. As for understanding them with the mind; doing this requires first learning the Uloom-e-Aqliyya, that is, the knowledge which is based upon the mind. What is this knowledge? How many divisions does it have? Which of them are related to matters of belief? Which of them are not connected to or do not depend on them? What are experimental physics, mathematical physics, metaphysics? Learning mathematical physics solidifies religious knowledge. It does not shock or contradict religious knowledge. Astronomy, arithmetic, and geometry are sciences that help the religion. Everything in experimental physics, except for a few theories and hypotheses, -which do not conform with the ones that have been experimented and proven- conforms with the religion and consolidates imān. Of the learnings of metaphysics, the ones that are unsound and corrupt do not conform with the religion. When these sciences are learned, those parts of religious knowledge that conform with insane knowledge and those that cannot be solved through insane knowledge, together with the reasons, will come to be known, and it will also be understood that those matters that do not seem to conform with the mind and those which the mind cannot grasp cannot be denied.


Astronomy in the Golden Age.

Allah Ta’ala has related imān (which is the basis of Islam) to experimentation and the intellect